How To Deal With Ethics Case Studies
Here is the critical strategy on how To Deal With Ethics Case Studies
This may sound apparent but begin by thinking ethically. Every morning, we are met by moral quandaries in the newspaper. We are assaulted with concerns about the fairness of our foreign policy, the morality of medical technology that can extend our lives, the rights of the homeless, and the fairness of our children's instructors to the varied pupils in their classes daily. Dealing with these moral dilemmas might be challenging at times. For example, how precisely should we consider an ethical issue? What types of questions should we pose? What considerations should we take into account?
The first stage in examining moral concerns is self-evident but not always straightforward: gather information. Some moral concerns spark conflicts merely because we fail to verify the facts.
Although obvious, this initial step is usually ignored. However, simply knowing the facts is insufficient. Facts, on their own, only tell us what is, not what should be. Aside from gathering evidence, addressing an ethical dilemma necessitates an appeal to ideals. To address moral concerns, philosophers have proposed five distinct approaches to values.
The Utilitarian Method
Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill developed the concept of utilitarianism in the nineteenth century to assist lawmakers in determining which laws were ethically leading. Both Bentham and Mill proposed that ethical behaviors achieve an excellent balance of good over evil. To assess a problem utilizing the practical method, we must first identify the many options accessible to us. Second, we consider who will be impacted by each action and what advantages or drawbacks will result. Third, we select the activity that will result in the most advantages while causing the least harm. Finally, the ethical action is the one that does the most good for the majority of people.
The Rights Approach
The second significant approach to ethics is based on the philosophy of 18th-century scholar Immanuel Kant and those like him, who emphasized the individual's right to choose for herself or oneself. According to these thinkers, human beings differ from simple objects in that they have dignity based on their ability to choose what they will do with their life freely. One has a fundamental moral right to have these choices honored. People are not things to be controlled; using people in ways they do not freely choose is a breach of human dignity. Aside from this fundamental right, there are many other, yet related, rights.
These other rights can be considered as a take on fundamental rights.
- The Right To The Truth: It is in our rights to know the truth and to be educated about issues that substantially impact our decisions and life.
- The Right Of Privacy: We have the freedom to believe, do, and say anything we choose in our personal lives as long as we do not infringe the rights of anyone else.
- The Right Not To Be Injured: We have a right of protection against any injury or wounds though it could be rationalized by freely and consciously conducting something that deserves punishment or freely and knowingly opting to incur such harm.
- The Right To What Is Agreed: The Right to What Has Been Agreed Upon is having claim on what has been promised by those with whom we willingly engaged into a contract or agreement.
When utilizing this to determine the morality of an action, we must question, "Does the activity respect the moral rights of everyone?"
A Fair or Justice Approach - Fairness, or an approach to morality based on fairness, is rooted in the ideas of the Greek philosopher Aristotle, who believed that "equality should be treated equally and inequality should be treated unequally". In this perspective, the fundamental moral question is: How fair is an action? Is it fair to everyone, or does it indicate bias and discrimination?
Favoritism bestows benefits on some people for no real cause; discrimination imposes costs on persons who are no different from those who are not burdened. Favoritism and discrimination are both unfair and wrong.
The Common-Good Approach
This approach to ethics posits a society made up of individuals whose well-being is intrinsically tied to the community's wellbeing. The pursuit of common principles and goals brings people together in a community.
The concept of the common good has been around for almost 2,000 years, dating back to Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero's writings. The common good was recently described by the ethicist John Rawls as "common circumstances ... for all men to benefit equally". This approach ensures that the social policies, social structures, institutions, and environments on which we rely benefit everyone. Common goods include affordable health care, adequate public safety, international peace, a just legal system, and a clean environment.
Appeals to the common good let us recognize ourselves as part of the same community, pondering broad concerns about the kind of society we want to be and how we will get there. While recognizing and honoring people's freedom to pursue their own goals, the common-good approach also challenges us to acknowledge and advance our common interests.
The Virtue Approach
The virtue approach to ethics poses particular standards toward which we should aspire to achieve full human development. These values are identified via careful consideration of the kind of individuals we can become.
Virtues are attitudes or character traits that allow us to reach our full potential. They allow us to pursue the principles we've chosen. Virtues include integrity, self-control, courage, compassion, generosity, fidelity, fairness, and prudence.
Virtues are similar to habits in that, once acquired, they become a person's distinguishing feature. Furthermore, a person who has developed virtues is predisposed to act in consistent ways with moral standards. An ethical person is a virtuous individual.
When using the virtue method to an ethical challenge, we may question, "What kind of person should I be?" What drives the growth of your character in me and my community?
When attempting to decide a moral dilemma, these five approaches imply that, once the facts have been established, we should ask ourselves the following five questions:
- What are the benefits and drawbacks of each course of action, and which option will result in the best overall consequence?
- What moral rights do the parties involved have, and what course of action best respects those rights?
- Which action method treats everyone equally, unless there is a morally justified reason not to, and does not exhibit favoritism or discrimination?
- What could be the best course of action for the greater good?
- Which behavior encourages the development of moral virtues?
Of course, this strategy does not provide an automatic answer to moral dilemmas, but it is not supposed to.Instead, the strategy is intended to assist in identifying the majority of the critical ethical considerations. Finally, we must think about moral questions for ourselves, keeping both the facts and the ethical implications in mind.
Putting the Approaches Together
Each approach assists us in determining what forms of action can be considered ethical. However, there are still concerns that need to be addressed.
The first issue is that we may not agree on the specifics of some of these techniques. Everyone may not agree on the same set of civic and human rights.
We could disagree about what constitutes the common good. We may not even agree on what constitutes good and damage.
The second issue is that the various approaches may not all respond to the question "What is ethical?" similarly.
Regardless, each method provides knowledge that can determine what is ethical in a given situation. And in most cases, the diverse approaches produce similar results.
Making excellent ethical decisions necessitates a trained awareness of ethical issues and a practiced approach for studying the ethical aspects of a decision and considering the factors that should influence our choice of action. Therefore, it is essential to have a process to make ethical decisions. When we use the procedure regularly, we become so accustomed to it that we can follow it without consulting the particular instructions.
The more innovative and challenging the ethical issue, the more we must rely on conversation and dialogue about the plight. Only through a comprehensive examination of the problem, helped by the insights and diverse viewpoints of others, can we make appropriate ethical decisions in such situations.
We discovered the following ethical decision-making framework to be a valuable tool for studying ethical quandaries and identifying ethical courses of action.
In short, here is a Framework for Ethical Decision Making.
- Recognize the Ethical Issue by asking the questions listed below:
- Is it possible that this decision or scenario will harm someone?
- Is it a case of two "goods" versus two "bad goods," or two "goods" versus two "bad goods"?
- Is there something extra to this than what`s legal and what`s maximum efficient? How so, if that's the case? Get the facts by asking,
- What are the case's significant facts?
- What isn't known?
- Do I have sufficient records to make a decision?
- What persons and organizations have a vested interest in the outcome?
- Are some worries more pressing than others?
- What are your acting options?
- Have all relevant individuals and groups been consulted?
- Are there any imaginative suggestions?
Consider the following questions when you evaluate your choices:
|The Utilitarian Approach||Which option will produce the most good and do the least harm|
|The Rights Approach||Which option best respects the rights of all who have a stake?|
|The Justice Approach||Which option treats people equally or proportionally?|
|The Common Good Approach||Which choice better serves the entire community, not just a few members?|
|The Virtue Approach||Which option leads me to act as the sort of person I want to be?|
Make a Decision and Put It to the Test
Considering all of these options, which one do you think, best handles the situation? What would they say if I informed someone I respect—or a television audience—which option I've chosen?
Act and Reflect on the Outcome
How can I implement my choice with the utmost care and consideration for the interests of all stakeholders?
How did my decision pan out, and what did I learn from this particular situation?
Once you've answered all of these questions, you'll be able to create an in-depth Ethics case study.