Moral Attitude | Political Attitude UPSC | Development of Moral Attitude | Important Moral Attitudes | Factors that Shape Political Attitude | Functions of Political Attitude Formulation | Role of Political Attitude in Determining Ethics | IAS TARGET IAS Target

Moral and Political Attitude

Moral Attitude

All attitudes which have their base in moral conviction are called moral attitudes. However, not all attitudes are related to morality. For example. Liking a particular food has no relation to morality; however, if a person does not eating non-vegetarian food on the ground of love for animals may have component of moral attitude.
Further, moral attitude is personal, and hence it may differ at the individual as well as social level. For example. A person can be a patriot for a country, while for another country, he may be a terrorist.

Factors that help in the development of Moral Attitude

  • family,
  • society,
  • religion,
  • education etc.

Important Moral Attitudes:

  • Goodness
    Denotes the generous and benevolence character of an individual towards others combined with the purity of heart. It focuses on the goodness in both means and ends.
  • Reverence
    Respect for all other life forms, be it human, animal, or plants, as well as, showing love and compassion in all walks of life.
  • Faithfulness
  • Remaining loyal to someone or something and putting that loyalty into consistent practice, regardless of extenuating situations. In other words, It shows the individual’s character to uphold moral values.
  • Truthfulness
    Honesty and truthfulness in one’s actions and attitude are essential for upholding the trust and faith of others. A dishonest person can never exemplify moral values in his life.

Political Attitude

Political attitude is the attitude you hold towards political issues or ideologies. For example: 
  • what is your view of the reservation?
  • Is it time that India should we stop giving reservations?
Your attitude towards reservation is a political attitude. Let’s take another example. 
What is your view on Communism?
  • Do you like the ideology of Communism?
  • Do you prefer the concept of no-state and market control? Or do you prefer a free market?
Attitude towards patriotism, democracy, plebiscite, reservation for women, eunuchs, equality, secularism, socialism, Communism, scheduled castes and other minorities in politics, communalism, ideals of transparency and accountability, corruption, voting, political parties, etc. comes under the broad umbrella of political attitude. Also, your attitude towards the basic politic spectrum – left or right – comes under your political attitude.

Factors (or agents) that shape political attitude:

  • Family:
  • Family is usually the first and most persistent factor which influence young people's mind for shaping political opinions. In childhood, children have a political attitude the same as their parents and tend to vote the way their parents do as per their choice and political view. Nevertheless, as children grow older, other influences crisscross the family, and naturally, their attitudes tend to diverge from those of their parents.
  • Religion:
    Religious leaning and ideas often influence the way people vote. Religion is the faith and belief of the people in values & beliefs. The latest episode has revealed that the religious right has supported more conservative candidates for public office in more favor of the recently occupied ruling party than the Democratic and centralist Party. The religious right tends to support being more orthodox and conservative. This propensity is more clearly associated with social issues such as gay rights and cow protection than economic issues or foreign affairs.
  • Race and Ethnicity:
    It has been accepted that for the past half-century, African Americans have been more affiliated with Democratic Party than any other identifiable group. It is very crystal clear in several studies that Asian Americans prefer to vote conservative, nevertheless there is still a lack of concrete evidence to prove this.
  • Economic pressures:
  • Many scholars affirmed that economic pressures are the prime incentive for choosing a specific political position, and, as a matter of fact, this does appear to be an important element. Human beings who are doing well in society normally do not want to change it. On the opposite, the poor have little to lose materially and much to gain from progressive change. Or so it can be supposed.
  • Age:
    Age is also an important factor in developing political attitudes. Normally, the young are more likely to be liberal than the aged. This is possible because the older generations have an interest in the status quo condition that the younger generations have not yet obtained. Young people dearth not only wealth but also a sense of commitment and belonging.
  • Psychological factor:
    Some people are also more psychologically suitable for liberalism or conservatism than others. To be a liberal, one must have a comparatively high tolerance for disorder.
  • Nature of People:
  • This is also an important factor in shaping political attitudes. If any human being considers that people are essentially bad, selfish, & aggressive, then one is likely to incline to the right of the spectrum. Everyone who thinks that people are naturally and innately evil will prefer to rely on strict laws & firm punishment for violators in the belief that such measures are necessary to control errant behavior. On the contrary, people who consider their colleagues to be essentially well-meaning and sensible will incline toward the left. They will try to avoid curbing human liberty by "needlessly" severe laws, and they will try to reason with lawbreakers.
  • Gender:
  • It has been noticed in our social structure that females tend to develop political attitudes according to their husbands or other family members, but in many cases, it is observed that they have different political views. Generally, women tend to be liberal as they want equal rights, equal pay, more opportunities, etc. Nevertheless, their political views also depend on religion, family, and class. Wherever the chief minister is a woman, women are more motivated to vote for their parties. In the present situation, women also started voting for parties that support "women's issues," such as women's protection, women's reservation, equal pay, and equal legal rights.
  • Residence:
    "Local" unemployed youth is more likely to align with a party that promises "action." Against the migrants or reservation based on region.
  • Literacy:
    School syllabus plays an important role. A Chinese may find Indian democracy as repulsive because he has been taught that Mao's Communist ideology is the best.
  • Perception about human characer
    • Hobbes said, “A person is fundamentally evil.” Therefore, a strong-powerful state is required.
    • Locke said, “Man is a good rational person”. Therefore, state should be kept weak, and men should be made strong by giving more freedom and rights.
    • if we believe people have the feeling of altruism, we’ll support communist ideology.
  • Media The information processed and shared on social, print, electronic, and other forms of media molds a person's political views. Social media like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and other platforms have played a big part in swinging the opinion of youth towards Modi/BJP during the 2014 General elections.

Functions of political attitude formulation:

  • Maintaining Political Culture: Maintaining a political culture is vital to political attitude formulation in stable conditions. This function is performed by communicating between political cultures from one generation to another generation. But in the present situation, political socialization does not always act to maintain political culture.
  • Alteration of Political Culture: Modification of political culture is an essential function of political attitude formulation.
  • Building Political Culture: Creating political culture is performed through the process of political attitude formulation. Every society needs to create a new political culture to establish a new political system.
  • Foundation of Present The pattern of the Political System: There is no elbow room for differences of opinions of opposition to a totalitarian state, whereas if we see there are several opportunities for the difference of opinions and opposition in open societies.

Role of Political attitude and polotical ideology in determining ethics in politics

  • In society, there is a need for a healthy political attitude for constructive politics. It will lead to more working hours of assemblies, and Parliament is the ethical demand of the constitution and people. But what, we have seen parliamentary sessions wash out without debate and discussion infighting between political parties.
  • Ethics in politics is determined if the political party has a direct connection to the people and how fast grievances are addressed. Both are a litmus test for Political attitudes; while each political party is claimed in political ideology having a positive political attitude is important.
  • To strengthen Ethics in politics Positive Political attitude is necessary, because this attracts youths toward politics and re-establishes faith in democracy in difficult times.
  • Continuity and Change: There is continuity and change in attitude formulation, and this is an important factor in the process of attitude formulation.