Salovey and Mayer Emotional Intelligence Model | Emotions UPSC | IAS TARGET IAS Target


Emotion is a mental state associated with the nervous system brought on by chemical changes associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioral responses, and a degree of pleasure or displeasure. There is currently no scientific consensus on a definition. Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.
Emotions are associated with psychology, neuroscience, endocrinology, medicine, history, sociology of emotions, and computer science. Current research areas in the concept of emotion include the development of materials that stimulate and elicit emotion. In addition, PET scans and fMRI scans help study the affective picture processes in the brain.
"Emotions can be defined as a positive or negative experience associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity." Emotions produce different physiological, behavioral, and cognitive changes. The original role of emotions was to motivate adaptive behaviors that in the past would have contributed to the passing on of genes through survival, reproduction, and kin selection.
Cognition is an important aspect of emotion. Those acting primarily on the emotions they are feeling may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential, particularly in the interpretation of events. For example, the realization of our belief that we are in a dangerous situation and the subsequent arousal of our body's nervous system (rapid heartbeat and breathing, sweating, muscle tension) is integral to the experience of our feeling afraid.
Emotions are complex. According to some theories, they are states of feeling that result in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior. The physiology of emotion is closely linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating, apparently, to particular emotions. Emotion is also linked to behavioral tendency. Extroverted people are more likely to be social and express their emotions, while introverted people are more likely to be more socially withdrawn and conceal their emotions. Emotion is often the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative.


Intelligence has been explained in numerous ways: the ability for logic, self-awareness, understanding, learning, emotional knowledge, planning, reasoning, creativity, critical thinking, & problem-solving. In general, it can be described as the ability to perceive or infer information and retain it as knowledge to be applied toward flexible behaviors within an context or environment.
Intelligence is most often studied in human being but has also been observed in non-human animals and plants. Intelligence in machines is called artificial intelligence, commonly implemented in computer systems using programs and, sometimes, appropriate hardware.

Emotional Intelligence (EI)

Emotional intelligence refers to 'the ability to identify one's own emotions and those of others, harness and apply them to tasks, and regulate and manage them.' Emotional Quotient (EQ) measures one's EI, i.e., through a standardized test, one's awareness of emotions about self and others are known.
EI is the capability of individuals to recognize their own emotions and those of others, discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and manage and adjust emotions to adapt to environments or achieve one's goal(s).
Anybody can become angry, that is easy; but to be angry with the right person, and to the right degree, and at the right time, and for the proper purpose, and in the right way, that is not within everybody's power, that is not easy." —Aristotle.

Understanding the Five Categories of Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

(Psychologist and best-selling author Daniel Goleman has suggested that there are five components critical to emotional intelligence
  • Self-awareness:
    The ability to recognize an emotion as it "happens" is the key to your EQ. Developing self-awareness requires tuning in to your true feelings. If you evaluate your emotions, you can manage them.
    Emotional awareness: Your capacity to recognize your own emotions & their consequences.

    Self-confidence: Sureness about your self-worth & capabilities.
  • Self-Regulation:
    you frequently have little control over when you feeling emotions. You may, though have some say in how long an emotion will last by using multiple techniques to remove negative emotions such as depression, depression or anxiety. A few of these methods include recasting a situation in a more positive light, taking a long walk, and meditation or prayer.
    Self-control Managing disruptive impulses.
    Trustworthiness Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity.
    Conscientiousness Taking responsibility for your own performance.
    Adaptability Handling change with flexibility.
    Innovation Being open to new ideas.
  • Motivation:
    To motivate yourself for any achievement requires clear goals and a positive attitude. Although you may have a predisposition to either a positive or a negative attitude, you can with effort and practice learn to think more positively. If you catch negative thoughts as they occur, you can reframe them in more positive terms — which will help you achieve your goals.
    Motivation is made up of:
    Achievement drive Your constant striving to improve or to meet a standard of excellence.
    Commitment Aligning with the goals of the group or organization.
    Initiative Readying yourself to act on opportunities.
    Optimism Pursuing goals persistently despite obstacles and setbacks
  • Empathy:
    Recognizing how people feel is essential to success in your life & career. The more talented & skillful you are at discerning the feelings beyond others' signals, the greater you can control the signal you send them.
    recognizing, Anticipating & meeting clients' requirement. recognizing, Anticipating & meeting clients' requirement.
    Service orientation  recognizing, Anticipating & meeting clients' requirement.
    Developing others Sensing what others need to progress and bolstering their abilities.
    Leveraging diversity Cultivating opportunities through diverse people.
    Political awareness Reading a group’s emotional currents and power relationships.
    Understanding others Discerning the feelings behind the needs and wants of others.
  • Social skills:
    Developing good inter-personal skills is tantamount to success in your life & career. In today's always connected world, every-one has immediate access to informationa and technical knowledge. So, "people skills" are even more crucial now because you must possess a high Emotional Quotient to understand better, empathize & negotiate with others in a global economy. Among the most valuable skills are:
    Influence Wielding effective persuasion tactics.
    Communication Sending clear messages.
    Leadership Inspiring and guiding groups and people
    Change catalyst Initiating or managing change
    Conflict management Understanding, negotiating and resolving disagreements
    Building bonds Nurturing instrumental relationships.
    Collaboration and cooperation Working with others toward shared goals.
    Team capabilities Creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals.

The Mayer Salovey Emotional Intelligence Model.

Perception, Appraisal and Expression of Emotion
  • Ability to identify emotion in one's physical states, feelings and thoughts.
  • Ability to identify emotions in other people, designs, artwork, etc., through language, sound appearance and behaviour.
  • Ability to express emotions accurately, and to express needs related to those feelings.
  • Ability to discriminate between accurate and inaccurate, or honest versus dishonest expressions of feeling
Emotional Facilitation of Thinking
  • Emotions prioritise thinking by directing attention to important information.
  • Emotions are sufficiently vivid and available that they can be generated as aids to judgement and memory concerning feelings.
  • Emotional mood swings change the individual's perspective from optimistic
  • to pessimistic, encouraging consideration of multiple points of view.
  • Emotional states differentially encourage specific problems approaches such as when happiness facilitates inductive reasoning and creativity.
Understanding and Analysing Emotions, Employing Emotional Knowledge
  • Ability to label emotions and recognise relations among the words and the emotions themselves, such as the relation between liking and loving.
  • Ability to interpret the meanings that emotions convey regarding relationships, such as that sadness often accompanies a loss.
  • Ability to understand complex feelings: simultaneous feelings of love and hate, or blends such as awe as a combination of fear and surprise
  • Ability to recognise likely transitions among emotions, such as the transition from anger to satisfaction, or from anger to shame.
Reflective Regulation of Emotions to Promote Emotional and Intellectual Growth
  • Ability to stay open to feelings, both those that are pleasant and those that are unpleasant.
  • Ability to reflectively engage or detach from an emotion depending upon its judged informativeness or utility.
  • Ability to reflectively monitor emotions in relation to oneself and others, such as recognising how clear, typical, influential or reasonable they are.
  • Ability to manage emotion in oneself and others by moderating negative emotions and enhancing pleasant ones, without repressing or exaggerating information they may convey.