Value UPSC | Value Definition | Value Ethics | Personal Value | Internal Value | External Value | List of Values | | Intrinsic Value | Extrinsic Value | Classification of Values | Cultural Value | Conflicting Value in present times | Moral Polishing IAS Target

Value (Ethics)

The value represents the degree of importance of something or action to determine what actions and activities are best to do or what course of action is best to live (normative ethics) or to narrate the significance of different actions. Value systems are proscriptive (the action of forbidding something, banning) and prescriptive (relating to the imposition or enforcement of a rule or method) beliefs; they affect the ethical behavior of a person or are the basis of their planned activities.
Often primary values are solid and secondary values are acceptable for changes. What makes an action valuable may, in succession, depend on the ethical and moral values of the objects it increases, decreases, or alters. An object with "ethic value" may be termed an "ethic or philosophic good." Values can be defined as general preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. Values reflect a person's sense of right and wrong or what "ought" to be. "Equal rights for all," "Excellence deserves admiration," and "People should be treated with respect and dignity" are representatives of values.

Values tend to influence attitudes and behavior and these types include:

  • Ethical/moral values,
  • Doctrinal/ideological (religious, political) values, social values,
  • aesthetic values.
It is argued whether some values that are not physiologically determined, namely, altruism is intrinsic & whether some, such as acquisitiveness, should be labeled as vices or virtues.

Personal values

Personal values impart an internal reference for what is good, beneficial, important, useful, helpful, beautiful, desirable, & constructive. Values are one of the elements that generate behavior and influence the choices made by an individual.
Moral, religious, and personal values, when held rigidly, may also give rise to conflicts that result from a clash between differing world views.
There are six internal values and three external values. They are known as the List of Values (LOV) in management studies. They are:
  • self respect,
  • warm relationships,
  • sense of accomplishment,
  • self-fulfillment,
  • fun and enjoyment,
  • excitement,
  • sense of belonging,
  • being well respected, and
  • security.

Instrinsic values

Intrinsic values are those values that are an end in themselves. They provide internal happiness and satisfaction in life. Whenever a person does something without any intention to gain anything, either materially or spiritually, he is guided by intrinsic values. Even helping a poor to gain blessings from him cannot be termed intrinsic. There should be no desire to do good in the case of intrinsic values.
Extrinsic values are those values that help us gain something; forex. Politicians or celebrities are getting engaged with slum dwellers, which receives full media glare. The actor promoted Swachch Bharat Abhiyan and participated in a TV channel show which also helped promote their movie. These celebrities are guided by extrinsic values.
Soldiers in Army serve the people of this country by defending the country and also participating in disaster relief. They are guided not only by professional values but also by love and devotion toward their country. So it can be called intrinsic value. 

From a functional aspect these values are categorized into three and they are:

  • interpersonal relationship area,
  • personal factors,
  • non-personal factors.
From an ethnocentric viewpoint, it could be assumed that the same set of values will not reflect uniformly between two groups of people from two different countries. Though the core values are interconnected, the processing of values can vary based on the cultural identity of an individual.

Cultural values

Individual cultures emphasize values that their members broadly share. The values of the public or society can often be identified by examining the level of honor and respect received by various groups and ideas. In the United States of America (USA), for instance, top-level professional athletes receive more respect and admiration (measured in terms of monetary payment) than university professors.

Conflicting values in contemporary times

In modern times all the conflicts and disputes in this world are due to the opposition of the values of others. People keeping their values above of others, and not respecting the values of others become the cause for widespread differences, mistrust & intolerance in society as well as international sphere. 
  • Materialism vs spiritualism
  • Hierarchy vs egalitarianism
  • Capitalism vs socialism
  • Globalization vs localization
  • Theocratic vs secular state
  • Individualism vs collectivism
  • Fundamentalist
    when one becomes color-blind that other’s values should not exist (Only his value is right) – ISIS
  • Global conflicts
    Due to conflict of values – Rising intolerance i.e., not acknowledging others values – USA vs. Russia
  • Moral Polishing
    Value conflicts – Bajrang dal on valentine’s day, Cow killing vs. cow vigilantes

Classification of Values

Individual values: Self-Development, creativity, liberty, survival
Social values: Cooperation, Tolerance, Compassion, Empathy. These help you as a ‘social being’.
Environment Values: Non-vegetarianism, compassion towards animal Harmonies living with your surroundings, “Chipko-movement” is example of Social+Environment values.
Organizational Values: Public service (in Government and NGO), profit (in private company), Truth (Journalism)
Constitutional Values: Fundamental rights, duties and DPSP. Creating scientific temperament, holding the honor of women and so on.