The Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal (BBIN) Initiative is a sub-regional architecture of countries in Eastern South Asia, a sub-region of South Asia. It meets through an official representation of member states to formulate, implement and review quadrilateral agreements across areas such as water resources management, transport, connectivity of power, and infrastructure.
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal (BBIN) had signed a framework MVA in June 2015 to enable the movement of passenger and cargo vehicles across borders among the four countries. Bhutan has not yet ratified the treaty for its entry to come into force. However, Bhutan had given its consent for the BBIN MVA to enter into force amongst the other 3 countries i.e. Bangladesh, India, and Nepal, who have already ratified it. India is in a bilateral motor vehicle agreement with Nepal and Bangladesh, but a multilateral pact would go a long way in increasing trade in the region.
|GDP (PPP)||$10.646 trillion (2017)|
|South Asia Sub regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC):||BBIN + Maldives + Sri Lanka + Myanmar|
|ADB is the secretariat of SASEC|
Objective of BBIN
- Not only movement of passengers and goods but promote environmentally safe transport in the region
- It may increase trade within the South Asia region and with outside partners.
- Establishment of “an institutional mechanism for regional integration.”
- BBIN signed a MVA (motor vehicle agreement) for the Regulation of Passenger, Personal and Cargo Vehicular Traffic.
- But nearly two years after ministers from Bhutan, Bangladesh, India and Nepal signed the BBIN MVA in Thimphu; the Bhutanese government withdrew from the agreement followed Bhutan’s domestic resistance to ratify the agreement. Bhutan is environmental conscious country, and fear of connectivity project of BBIN may adversely affect environment. So Bhutan not ratified BBIN pact
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been providing technical, advisory, and financial support to the BBIN MVA initiative as part of its assistance to the South Asia Sub-regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) program.