Human Development Index 2019 | IAS Target IAS Target

Human Development Index 2019

The Human Development Index (abbreviation of HDI) is a statistic composite report/ index of education, life expectancy, and per capita income indicators, which are particularly used to grade countries into four stages of human development. A country reaches the top position in HDI, when the education level is higher, the gross national income is higher and the lifespan is higher. The concept of the Human Development Index was given by Mahbub ul Haq, the Pakistani economist. HDI was further used to gauge a countryís development by the UNDPís Human Development Report Office.
The 2010 HDI introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. The index doesnít consider factors including the relative quality of goods and the net wealth per capita in a country. This situation leads to a lower the position for some of the advanced countries, like the G7 members and the others.

Goals of the Human Development Report are-

  • Progression of human development
  • Introduction to the new concepts concerning human development
  • Expansion of liberty, choices, and opportunities of people around the world
  • Challenging the approaches and strategies that hamper human development

HDR is released annually by UNDP with five composite indices such as-

  • Gender Inequality Index
  • Human Development Index
  • Gender Development Index
  • Multidimensional Poverty Index
  • Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index

India falls two positions below in the Human Development Index; however, India improved its absolute value of HDI. In 2019, India is standing at 131 out of 189 countries. For the first time, the UN development programme introduced a metric to show the impact caused by each nationís per-capita carbon emissions and its material footprint that calculates the number of fossil fuels and other resources used to manufacture goods and services it takes.
Norway tops the HDI, leaving Ireland at the top position. Australia falls 72 places while Canada and the United States fall 45 and 40. China would fall 16 places, from its recent ranking of 85.


No country has yet achieved a high level of development without putting enormous pressure on natural resources. We need to be the first generation to do all things correct. Human Development Index itself is an assessment of a countryís education, living standard, and health. However, this year only covers the 2019 report and doesnít account for the impact of Pandemic Covid-19. It is expected that in 2020, the global Human Development Index would down for the first time in the last three decades since the Index was introduced.