Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) | IAS Target IAS Target

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states worldwide. The Movement has its origin in the Asia-Africa Conference held in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955. The first summit was held in Belgrade in 1961. The term non-aligned movement first appeared in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries were denoted as "members of the movement".

Drawing on the principles agreed at the Bandung Conference in 1955, NAM was set-up through an initiative of:
  • the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
  • the Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.

Established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Membership 120 member states
Observer 17 states
International Organizations 10

  • The 17th edition of 2016 Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summit was held at Margarita Island in Venezuela.
  • It was created by the heads of Yugoslavia, India, Egypt, Ghana and Indonesia.
  • Theme for 2019Ė Promotion and Consolidation of Peace through Respect for International Law.

Facts about NAM

  • Represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members
  • 55% of the world population
  • Members are mainly developing or part of the Third World, some developed countries also part of the NAM

Principle of NAM

  • The policy of non-alignment was based on the five principles of Panchasheel
    • Mutual respect for each otherís territorial integrity and sovereignty
    • Non-interference in each otherís military and internal affairs
    • Mutual non-aggression;
    • Equality and mutual benefit
    • Peaceful coexistence and economic cooperation

  • Solid moral and sound political foundation.
  • Formulating an independent foreign policy and not toe super power bloc lines but serving national, regional and global interest

Objective of NAM

  • To ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against racism, imperialism, neo-colonialism, colonialism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics."
  • Since the Cold War's end, it has focused on developing multilateral ties and connections as well as unity among the developing nations of the world, especially those within the Global South.

India and NAM

Issues raised by India at NAM Meet (2016 in Venezuela) included-
  • Climate change
  • Digital Technologies
  • Terrorism.

India's gain from NAM

  • NAM's role in avoiding of war during the Cold War years b/w super power

  • India advocated:
    • Decolonisation
    • End to apartheid
    • Global nuclear disarmament
    • Ushering in of new international economic and information orders.
      India gain its success in achieving these goals and advancing global south concerns

  • India maintain good relationship with countries of both bloc
  • Sustenance of developing country's sovereignty and alleviated the fears of neo-colonialism.
  • Soft-Power Leadership and enhancing India's role in global politics and leadership

NAM relevance declining

  • NAM members are mostly weak, poor and developing countries. These developing countries need assistence for development. These countries also have no say in world politics or economy.
  • Now NAM countries conflicting interest in global geopolitics so Inability to find solution of world problems like the West-Asian crisis.
  • Egypt withdrawl from NAM, after the Arab Spring (Egypt was one of the founding member of NAM)