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State Of Forest Report

The latest edition of India’s State of Forest Report (ISFR) 2021, was published by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change on January 13th. The paper includes detailed statistics on the woods and trees found within Indian territory. This document includes information for particular states, zones, and the national level. The first such report was published in the year 1987, and ISFR 2021 is the 17th edition.
While giving the reports, Union Minister for MoEF & CC Bhupendra Yadav stated, "The overall forest and tree cover of the country is 24.6% of the country's geographical area, which is roughly 80.9 million hectares."
The Forest Survey of India compiles the State of Forests Report of India after doing substantial research, data collection, and compilation throughout the country. The report, however, is released by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change (MoEFCC) rather than by FSI. It is issued with a two-year gap, with the 2019 report coming before the 2021 report.
The report investigates growing stock in forests and trees outside of forests, bamboo resources, carbon stock, and several other characteristics.

Key Features of India State of Forest Report, 2021

  • The research is based on a survey of three different types of forests, namely,
  • Extremely dense forests (having canopy density of more than 70%)
  • Forests with a medium density (having canopy density between 40% and 70%)
  • Open Forests (having canopy density between 10% and 40%)
  • Where canopy density is less than 10%, the region is categorized as “shrubs” instead of “forests”, yet the area is still being surveyed.

New Features of India State of Forest Report, 2021

  • For the first time, the study and survey included Gir Forest (the only habitat for Asiatic Lions), Tiger Reserves, and other protected areas along with Tiger Corridors.
  • Twenty out of 32 tiger reserves have seen decadal increases in forest cover, while the remaining ten have seen decreases.
  • Forest cover in tiger corridors has improved slightly, whereas, in tiger reserves, forest cover has decreased significantly.
  • The following tiger reserves have seen an increase in forest cover:
    1. Buxa Tiger Reserve (West Bengal)
    2. Indravati Tiger Reserve (Chhattisgarh)
    3. Anamalai Tiger Reserve (Tamil Nadu)
  • he following tiger reserves have lost forest cover:
    1. Kawal Tiger Reserve (Telangana)
    2. Bhadra Tiger Reserve (Karnataka)
    3. Sunderbans Tiger Reserve (West Bengal)
  • In terms of the %age of total forest cover to the area, Arunachal Pradesh's Pakke Tiger Reserve has the best record, with up to 97% forest cover.

Increase in Forest Cover/Tree Cover

  • Total forest and tree cover in India has increased by 0.4%, from 21.67% to 21.71%, demonstrating that greenery in India is continuing to increase.
  • India's tree and forest cover has increased by 721 square kilometers.
  • The three states listed below are the best performers in terms of expanding forest cover:
    1. Telangana (3.07%)
    2. Andhra Pradesh (2.22%)
    3. Odisha (1.04%)

States with the Most Forest Cover/Area:

  • Madhya Pradesh (the heart of India) continues to have the highest area under forest cover in India, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Maharashtra.
  • %age of States with the Highest Forest Coverage/Area: Mizoram is first in this category, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, and Nagaland.
  • Mangrove forests in India have grown by 17 square kilometers.
  • From 2019 to 2021, bamboo forests in India increased by around 26%.
  • The area designated as "Very Dense Forests" has increased by over 500 square kilometers.
  • India's goal, according to the 1988 National Forest Policy, is to cover 33% of its land area with forest cover.
Madhya Pradesh has the country's greatest forest area, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and Maharashtra. Mizoram (84.53%), Arunachal Pradesh (79.33%), Meghalaya (76.00%), Manipur (74.34%), and Nagaland are the five states with the greatest proportion of forest coverage in a total geographic area (73.90%).
In comparison to the 2019 report, forest area expanded by 1,540 square kilometers (0.22%) and tree area increased by 721 square kilometers (0.76%) according to ISFR 2021.
The northeast experienced the greatest total loss of forest cover, accounting for 1,020 km2. Mizoram (1.03%), Arunachal Pradesh (0.39%), Manipur (1.48%), Meghalaya (0.43%), and Nagaland account for the remaining 23.75% of total forest area (1.88%). (%age) has lost its significance. According to the paper, the decline caused by natural catastrophes, agricultural relocation, and deforestation will influence the region's water resources and exacerbate the impact of landslides.
Between November 2020 and June 2021, India reported a total of 3,45,989 wildfires, according to ISFR 2021. This is the country's highest level ever recorded. There were around 2,58,480 wildfires reported during the same period in 2018-19, indicating a significant rise.
Orissa had the most fires (51,968), followed by Madhya Pradesh (47,795) and Chhattisgarh (47,795). (38,106).
Uttarakhand had the sixth-highest number of fires in the country. When compared to the previous wildfire season, the incidence has climbed 28.3 times. The district with the highest number of such cases was Gadchilory in Maharashtra, with 10,577 cases, followed by Kandhamal in Orissa, with 6,156 cases, and Villapur in Chhattisgarh, with 5,499 cases.
The forest cover in the country's mountainous parts accounts for 40.17% of their overall geographic area. According to the latest estimate, this is a 0.32% decline. In mountainous areas, the 2019 study predicts a 544 km2 increase in forest area, while the 2021 report shows a 902 km2 reduction. The tribal territory's overall forest covering occupies 37.53% of the region's geographic area, representing a decline of 655 km2 within the RFA / GW and an increase of 600 km2 outside.
The country's total bamboo content is estimated to be 149443 km2. The area covered by bamboo has shrunk by 10,594 square kilometers from the ISFR 2019 projection. The bamboo forest has grown from 13,882 million culms in 2019 to 53,336 million culms in 2020. (stems).
For the first time, ISFR 2021 assessed the tiger reserve's forest cover. Twenty of the 52 tiger reserves have seen an increase in forest covering during 2011, while 32 have seen a loss. Tiger reserves shrank by 22.6 km2 (0.04%), but tiger corridors expanded by 37.15 km2 (0.32%). The loss is greatest in the reserves of Kawar, Badra, and Sundarbans.
The country's total forest carbon stocks are anticipated to be 7,204 million tonnes, up 79,400,000 tonnes from the previous estimate in 2019. Carbon storage increases by 40 million tonnes each year. Soil organic carbon is the biggest pool of forest carbon storage, accounting for 41.20 million tonnes. Soil organic carbon accounts for 56% of total forest carbon stores in the country.

Decrease in Natural Forests

  • The amount of "Moderately Dense Forests", also known as "Natural Forests", in India has declined, according to the State of Forest Report 2021. The trend is followed by a considerable increase in the area classed as "Open Forests", indicating that India's forests are degrading. It's also worth noting that the "Scrub Area" has grown significantly, implying that the forests have been destroyed.
  • The forest cover in the northeast Indian states such that Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh etc has decreased by about 1000 square kilometers.
  • The reasons for this reduction are said to be natural disasters such as strong rains, landslides, floods, and so on, as well as an increased human activity such as shifting agricultural and new infrastructure projects that result in large-scale tree removal.
  • Important point to consider that more than 8% of total Indian territory is represented by these 7 sisters states (North-Easten States) yet they represent approximately 24% of the total forest cover of India.

Report Findings:

Increase in Area:
  • The country's forest and tree cover has enhanced by 1,540 square kilometers in the last two years.
  • India's forest cover has increased to 7,13,789 square kilometers, or 21.71% of the country's geographical area, up from 21.67 % in 2019.
  • The area covered by trees has increased by 721 square kilometers.
  • Tree or say the green cover is defined as all tree patches less than one hectare in size that occurs outside of the reported forest area. This includes trees of different shapes and sizes, as well as scattered trees.

Growth/Decrease in Forest Coverage:

  • Telangana (3.07%), Andhra Pradesh (2.22%), and Odisha have seen the greatest increase in forest cover (1.04%).
  • The forest cover in the following five Northeastern states has decreased: Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland.

States with the most forest area/coverage:

  • States with the most forest area/coverage: Madhya Pradesh has the country's highest forest cover, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Maharashtra
  • In terms of forest cover as a %age of the total geographical area, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, and Nagaland are the top five states.
  • The word 'forest area' refers to the legal status of the land as recorded by the government, but the term 'forest cover' refers to the presence of trees on any land.


  • Mangroves have grown by 17 square kilometers. The total area of mangroves in India is now 4,992 square kilometers.
  • Forest Fire Proneness: 35.46% of the forest cover is vulnerable to forest fires. 2.81% are extremely prone, 7.85% are extremely highly prone, and 11.5% are highly prone.
  • Global Warming, Climate change and rising temperatures would affect 45-64% of India's forests by 2030.
  • Forests in all states (excluding Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Nagaland) would be extremely sensitive to climate change. Ladakh (0.1-0.2% forest cover) is projected to be the most affected.

Overall Carbon Stock:

  • The total carbon stock in the country's forests and tree is anticipated to be 7,204 million tonnes, up 79.4 million tonnes from 2019.
  • The quantity of carbon absorbed from the atmosphere and now stored within the forest ecosystem, primarily in living biomass and soil, but also, to a lesser extent, in dead wood and litter, is referred to as forest carbon stock.

Bamboo Plantations:

  • The size of bamboo forests has grown from 13,882 million culms (stems) in 2019 to 53,336 million culms in 2021.

India State of Forest Report (ISFR) is a biennial publication of Forest Survey of India (FSI), an organization under the ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change Government of India.

State of Forest Report – 2019

State of Forest Report – 2017
State of Forest Report – 2019

The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is the nodal agency for overseeing the implementation of

  • India’s environment and forest policies
  • Programmes of conservation of natural resources including o Lakes and rivers o Biodiversity o Forests and wildlife It ensures
  • Welfare of animals
  • Prevention and abatement of pollution.
  • It is also the nodal agency for

  • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
  • South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP)
  • International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)
  • United nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)
  • The Ministry coordinates with

  • Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
  • Global Environment Facility (GEF)
  • Economic and Social Council for Asia and Pacific (ESCAP)

The 3rd meeting of BRICS Environment Ministers' and Environmental Senior Officers meeting was held in Tianjin, China on

22-23 June, 2017. o The major outcomes include adoption of: § Tianjin Statement on Environment § BRICS Partnership for Urban

Environmental Sustainability Initiative v The 8th India-European Union Environment Forum was organised by EU on the theme of "Resource Efficiency and the Circular Economy - Benefits beyond environment" in New Delhi on 30th June, 2017."