IAS Target

Subhas Chandra Bose

Introduction

Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India. Indian revolutionary prominent in the independence movement against British rule of India. He also led an Indian national force from abroad against the Western powers during World War II. He was a contemporary of Mohandas K. Gandhi, at times an ally and at other times an adversary. He died from third degree burns received when his plane crashed in Taiwan.

Subhash Bose early life

Subhas Chandra Bose was born Cuttack, Orissa Division Bengal Province to Prabhavati Dutt Bose and Janakinath Bose an advocate belonging to a Kayastha family. He was admitted to the Protestant European School in Cuttack. He was admitted to the Presidency College where he studied briefly. He was influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna after reading their works at the age of 16. He felt that his religion was more important than his studies. His nationalistic temperament came to light when he was expelled for assaulting Professor Oaten for the latter's anti-India comments. He later passed his B.A. in 1918 in philosophy. Bose left India in 1919 for England for appearing in the Indian Civil Services (ICS) examination and came fourth in the ICS examination and was selected, but he did not want to work under an alien government. He resigned from his civil service job on 23 April 1921 and returned to India.

Bose Political activity

Bose had been a leader of the younger, radical, wing of the Indian National Congress in the late 1920s and 1930s, rising to become Congress President in 1938 and 1939. In November 1941, with German funds, a Free India Centre was set up in Berlin, and soon a Free India Radio, on which Bose broadcast nightly. With Japanese support, Bose revamped the Indian National Army (INA), then composed of Indian soldiers of the British Indian army who had been captured in the Battle of Singapore. Bose had great drive and charisma—creating popular Indian slogans, such as "Jai Hind,"—and the INA under Bose was a model of diversity by region, ethnicity, religion, and even gender. Bose was known in particular for his militant approach to independence and for his push for socialist policies.
Bose joined the non-cooperation movement started by Mohandas K. Gandhi, who had made the Indian National Congress a powerful nonviolent organization. Bose was advised by Gandhi to work under Chitta Ranjan Das, a politician in Bengal. There Bose became a youth educator, journalist, and commandant of the Bengal Congress volunteers. Bose was deported to Burma (Myanmar) by British govt because he was suspected of connections with secret revolutionary movements. Nehru and Bose together represented the more militant, left-wing faction of the party against the more compromising, right-wing Gandhian faction.

Subhash Bose and Azad Hind Fouz

He reached Japanese-controlled Singapore from Germany in July 1943, issued from there his famous call, ‘Delhi Chalo’, and announced the formation of the Azad Hind Government and the Indian National Army on 21st October 1943. The link with the old revolutionary tradition was emphasized by giving a post of honour in the government to Rashbehari Bose, who had been living in exile in Japan since 1915. Despite all his differences with Gandhiji, Bose did not forget to ask for the blessings of the ‘Father of the Nation’ while starting his enterprise.
The I.N.A. was essentially non-communal, with Muslims quite prominent among its officers and ranks, and it also introduced the innovation of a women’s detachment named after the Rani of Jhansi. The INA revealed Subhash Bose’s greatness as a military leader and an organizer too. One of the INA Brigades advanced with the Japanese army upto the frontiers of India. The Indian national flag was hoisted in Kohima (Nagaland) in March 1944.

Subhash Bose Religious view

Bose biggest achievement in public life was to bring about the unity all of the religious communities of India: Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and Christians. Subhas actually believed in the possibility of what he described as cultural intimacy among the different religious communities of India. Subhas was really a very broad-minded man. He himself had been deeply influenced by Vivekananda. He himself was a devotee of the Mother Goddess.

Bose relationship with Gandhi

Meanwhile, Bose became increasingly critical of Gandhi’s more conservative economics as well as his less confrontational approach toward independence. In 1938 he was elected president of the Indian National Congress and formed a national planning committee, which formulated a policy of broad industrialization. However, this did not harmonize with Gandhian economic thought, which clung to the notion of cottage industries and benefiting from the use of the country’s own resources. In 1939 INC president which belongs to Bose faction and not got Gandhi support, so Bose had to resign from INC due to differences with Gandhiji. Later Bose founded the Forward Bloc. On January 26, 1941, he escaped from his Calcutta residence in disguise and, traveling via Kabul and Moscow, eventually reached Germany in April.