The UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam offers Chemistry as an optional subject consisting of two papers, each carrying 250 marks. The syllabus is designed for candidates with a background in Chemistry at the graduate level. It covers topics such as atomic structure, states of matter, and various types of reactions.
The optional papers contribute to a total of 500 marks, alongside other subjective essay papers in the exam. While there is some overlap with the Physics syllabus, this subject is particularly suitable for individuals working in fields like chemistry, chemical engineering, medicine, and HAZMAT specialization.
UPSC Mains Chemistry Paper 1 Syllabus
Heisenberg’s instability standard, Schrodinger wave comparison (time free); Interpretation of wave capacity, molecule in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen particle wave capacities; Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.
Ionic bond, attributes of ionic mixes, grid vitality, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general qualities, polarities of bonds in particles and their dipole minutes; Valence bond hypothesis, idea of reverberation and reverberation vitality; Molecular orbital hypothesis (LCAO strategy); holding in Comparison of valence security and sub-atomic orbital hypotheses, security request, security quality and security length.
Gem frameworks; Designation of gem confronts, cross section structures and unit cell; Bragg’s law; X-beam diffraction by gems; Close pressing, span degree rules, computation of some restricting sweep proportion qualities, debasement deformities, semi-conductors
The Gaseous State and Transport Phenomenon:
Comparison of state for genuine gasses, intermolecular associations and discriminating phenomena and liquefaction of gasses, Maxwell’s appropriation of velocities, intermolecular impacts, crashes on the divider and emanation; Thermal conductivity and thickness of perfect gasses.
Kelvin mathematical statement; Surface pressure and surface vitality, wetting and contact edge, interfacial strain and narrow activity.
Work, heat and inward vitality; first law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state capacity, entropy changes in different methods, entropy–reversibility and irreversibility, Free vitality capacities; Thermodynamic mathematical statement of state; Maxwell relations; Temperature, volume and weight reliance of U, H, A, G, Cp and Cv; J-T impact and reversal temperature; criteria for harmony, connection between balance consistent and thermodynamic amounts; Nernst heat hypothesis, starting thought of third law of thermodynamics.
Stage Equilibria and Solutions:
Clausius-Clapeyron mathematical statement; stage chart for an immaculate substance; stage equilibria in double frameworks, incompletely miscible liquids–upper and lower basic arrangement temperatures; halfway molar amounts, their noteworthiness and determination; overabundance thermodynamic capacities and their determination.
Debye-Huckel hypothesis of solid electrolytes and Debye-Huckel constraining Law for different balance and transport properties. Galvanic cells, fixation cells; electrochemical arrangement, estimation of e.m.f. of cells and its applications energy units and batteries. Forms at cathodes; twofold layer at the interface; rate of charge exchange, current thickness; overpotential; electroanalytical methods: Polarography, amperometry, particle particular terminals and their employments.
Differential and vital rate comparisons for zeroth, in the first place, second and fragmentary request responses; Rate mathematical statements including opposite, parallel, sequential and chain responses; fanning chain and blasts; impact of temperature and weight on rate consistent; Study of quick responses by stop-stream and unwinding routines; Collisions and move state speculations.
Ingestion of light; rot of energized state by distinctive courses; photochemical responses in the middle of hydrogen and incandescent lamp and their quantum yields.
Surface Phenomena and Catalysis:
Ingestion from gasses and arrangements on strong adsorbents, Langmuir and B.E.T. adsorption isotherms; determination of surface zone, qualities and instrument of response on heterogeneous impetuses.
Metal particles in organic frameworks and their part in particle transport over the layers (atomic instrument), oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.
Bonding speculations of metal buildings; Valence bond hypothesis, precious stone field hypothesis and its changes; utilizations of hypotheses in the clarification of attraction and electronic spectra of metal edifices.
Isomerism in coordination mixes
IUPAC terminology of coordination mixes
Stereochemistry of buildings with 4 and 6 coordination numbers
Impact and polynuclear edifices
Trans impact and its speculations
Energy of substitution responses in square-planer edifices
Thermodynamic and active strength of edifices
Reactivity of metal carbonyls
Carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl mixes.
Complexes with fragrant frameworks, combination, structure and holding in metal olefin edifices, alkyne buildings and cyclopentadienyl edifices; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative expansion responses, insertion responses, fluxional particles and their portrayal; Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal iota bunches.
Principle Group Chemistry:
Boranes, borazines, phosphazenes and cyclic phosphazene, silicates and silicones, Interhalogen mixes; Sulfur – nitrogen mixes, respectable gas mixes.
General Chemistry of “f” Block Elements:
Lanthanides and actinides; division, oxidation states, attractive and phantom properties; lanthanide withdrawal.
UPSC Mains Chemistry Paper 2 Syllabus
Delocalised Covalent Bonding:
Aromaticity, against aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, fulvenes, sydnones.
General strategies (both motor and non-active) of investigation of component of natural responses: isotopic system, traverse examination, middle of the road catching, stereochemistry; vitality of initiation; thermodynamic control and dynamic control of responses.
Generation, geometry, dependability and responses of carbonium
particles and carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and
SN1, SN2 and SNi components; neighboring gathering interest; electrophilic and nucleophilic responses of sweet-smelling mixes including heterocyclic compounds–pyrrole, furan, thiophene and indole.
E1, E2 and E1cb components; introduction in E2 reactions–Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn disposal – Chugaev and Cope ends.